How can I create an RDF database?
Following are the options if you know RDF syntax than you can use any editor. Oracle also supports storage of RDF data You can use tools like protege you can use translation tool to convert data from (e.g. RDM ) to RDF
What are the applications of graph embedding in natural language processing?
The application below is more a use of natural language processing to generate graph dings than the other way around. However it is the traversal of a graph that enables the generation of dings using an unsupervised model. The use case is transformation of structured into unstructured sentence form that enables generation of graph dings which can then be used for a variety of tasks. Input could also be rdf triples with each triple flattened to two edges - to construct a knowledge graph with nodes being represented as dings. For instance if we have a two column input representing the edges of a graph (shown below) we can convert this into sentences either by treating it as a directed or undirected graph (the s 1572 172 There are C++ and python implementations of node2vec that are available node2vec s Python implementation s C++ implementation s for large graphs the word2vec part of the implementation in node2vec may not work at times. However the graph generation works - so it can be isolated and used. We can just use standard word2vec once the sentences are generated 1
What are the differences between a Graph database and a Triple store ?
Despite my reservations about the coherence of the moniker Graph Database s@kidehen here are some key distinctions between a Triple Store and a so-called Graph Database. RDF Triple Stores or RDBMS engines that support RDF Data is modeled as a collection of Entity Relationship Types Entity Relationships are represented using subject-predicate-object sentence collections depictable as a Directed Graph Data Manipulation operations are handled via SPARQL (a W3C open standard) Graph Databases Everything is proprietary. Only sources of information are Use of phrase Graph Database Conversations laden with words (not terms) like nodes and edges Collateral laden with examples using proprietary languages (typically a language per product) re Data Definition and Manipulation operations. ordered-list The implications of the distinctions above are trivial to demonstrate too! I can articulate everything in this post using an RDF document published to the Web as a Semantic Web of Linked Data contribution that accessible to any RDFpliant RDBMS or Triple Store. Why don similar examples exist for Graph Databases? I have no idea how I would repeat the above using a so-called Graph Database. Related DBMS Comparison based on content of this post using RDF sentences %2Data%2Documents via an RDF-Turtle document DBMS Comparison as its own Semantic Web of Linked Data What is a Semantic Web? answer aid 277738 Simple Linked Data Deployment Tutorial s Why Graph Database is a confusing DBMS moniker s@kidehen Do we need specialized graph databases? Benchmarking real-time social networking applications? s About Conceptual Relational Data Virtualization s Understanding Data s
What is a nice computing science project topic?
I'll give you some suggestions here - but I would like you to think about something first What you are asking for - is the answer to the Multi-Billion Dollar question ---- What should I code....? The world is full of programmers but it's not full of fantastic highly-viable ideas. They are not easy toe by - as you are finding out right now. So - if you can't think of something great then you need to partner up with an idea guy. The idea guy gives you something so fantastic that you'll think you died and went to heaven. The code will simply fly out of you like lightning because you'll finally know what you want to do with your life. Billions of dollars will now be in your grasp. Your future will now depend on you. But when you partner up with an idea guy expect to really partner up. That means sharing a large portion of thepany - and even more if you don't have business skills and cash to breathe life into yourpany. Yes - you will do all the coding work. Yes - it will feel unfair - while you work - and the idea guy sits back and does nothing (he did all his work before you got involved in the project). All of this changes the Billion Dollar question to.... Would you rather have half of $4 Billion Dollars by being successful with a fantastic idea (= $2 Billion Dollars) or would you rather have 1% of $ Dollars by working on a blah idea (= $Zero Dollars)? The choice is yours. I'm an idea guy. If you want that multi-billion dollar idea (and I have tons) send me an email at Gregarious1(at)Hotmail(.. Firste - first served - with the BEST ideas. OK - Here's your list of general projects to work on. Please note that there are otherpanies doing these systems right now so you'll have the ability to study their code but be careful not to steal their code or create and sell apetitive product because they may have patents in place protecting their IP (intellectual property) General Ideasn1. Incorporate videochat or web calling into a website and demonstrate how they . Create a storefront for a website and demonstrate the order process.. Create a smallpany using Gamification to show how fun can be used to drive . Create a remote control system that does physical things around the home from your mobile device laptop and desktop. Examples might be turn on or off lights access cameras turn up or down heating or cooling etc. That's enough for now. You can create some pretty cool stuff simply from that list. And if you're really creative you should be able to unlock the secrets of the universe from those ideas there. If you're stumped for a great idea then send me an email - and I'll get you working on something that you'll believe is the greatest thing that ever was. S
What is the relation between Semantic Web and AI?
There symbolic or good old fashioned AI and then there statistical machine learningBayesian and neural net approaches. And then there are others. Historically each approach to AI has been managed by a separate tribe Pedro Domingos points out in The Master Algorithm italic s . Data-Centric Business Transformation Using Knowledge Graphs s PwC 218. But the tribes need toe together to solve problems. Semantic web-based knowledge graphs declare all the symbolist code in RDF OWL and SHACL (three of the W3C semantic web standards) statements. All models rules constraints etc are encoded in RDF (a data interchange standard) and live alongside the instance data which is also in RDF so machines can read across the whole graph and so graphs can be connected Tinker Toy style. A major part of the issue is that data is almost invariably siloed to begin with. Knowledge graphs desilo the data integrate and conualize it via a multidimensional graph model called an ontology. The instance data and the rules and machine readable cons in the data model are all married together in this way. I can underscore enough that the data and much of the logic machines need are all in the graph and all accessible this way not trapped in silos. Millions of developers are still trapping data and logic in silos when they should be declaring rules and modeling the business in a unified way via knowledge graphs. Symbolic AI and statistical AI have to go together so the symbolist approach (knowledge representation plus rules constraints and other symbolic logic) is nowadays manifested as a knowledge graph that advanced statistics and machine learning can run on top of. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts so that how you get Conual Computing DARPA Third Phase of AI. Scaling the mirrorworld with knowledge graphs s PwC 219 Lots of large enterprises are trying to use this approach including nine out of ten of the most value-creatingpanies in the world. (Though not all are using semantic standards. For example Google started with the standards then evolved its own internal standard.) The canonical case study I always point to that embodies the approach Ive described is the Montefiore Health semantic data lake which integrates all sorts of structured and unstructured data so that doctors can query the graph from the patient bedside and get answers back that are fully informed by the latest research and patient and patient cohort-specific. This approach uses open standards and so any enterprise could use this same approach cost effectively. Montefiore (a chain of hospitals that operates in some of the poorest parts of New York and New England) has proven the value of the standards and has also transformed its business model with the help of this approach. Data-Centric Business Transformation Using Knowledge Graphs s PwC 218 The knowledge graph thus solves the problem of just looking for your keys under the lamppost because that where the light is. With a knowledge graph like this one the light is everywhere so machines can help us answer questions in a conually-specific way. The semantic AI provides the con and the reasoning and the statistical AI provides the recognition and learning. Thanks for the question Baskaran Pavitran .
What are some guidelines to build a good RESTful API?
Use URLs as IDs Every thing in your API every concept should have its own URL. The URL should serve as both an identifier italic as well as a locator italic it is the identity of a thing and it provides a way to fetch information about that thing. Firstly URLs make your responses far easier to navigate italic . When a JSON object representing a social media post references some author with an identity of 18EA91FB19 code you don know where you can find that author. You need to read the API docs discover the endpoint for authors andpose your request. If the ID was a URL you would instantly know where to send that request to. This is not just great for humans but also for machines since they can read your API docs - but they can navigate URLs. Secondly URLs are not just unique identifiers in a single system but also unique across different systems. The domain name takes care of that. This means that you can use your data across multiple systems italic . This is one of the properties that makes ed data awesome s . Make sure that your URLs (and IDs) are stable. Cool URIs don change s . If they really have to change make sure the old URLs redirect to the new ones. Nobody likes broken s. Your API endpoint is your website You don need a subdomain for your API like code or a sub-path like code . Your endpoint should be the root of your webpage code . This is useful because as discussed above the URL should be both the identifier as the locator of a single resource. Whether someone is looking for a HTML version or for example a JSON representation of a resource he should be able to use the same URL. This makes your API easier to use because someone who navigates your website can know at any time how to access the same resource in some other format. But if the URL does not change across format how do you request the right one? This is where HTTP content negotiation s es in handy. A client can send preferences about what kind of content it wants to receive in the Accept code HTTP header. The default header for web browsers is code but for most APIs a machine readable setting such as application code is more suitable. But what about API versioning? We want our URLs not to change italic so we should not use different URLs for different API versions. The solution again is to use a HTTP header. Use an api-version code header or a specific Mime s in your requests. Use sensible hierarchy in URL paths Having a URL hierarchy that makes sense is not just important for your website but also for your API - especially if your API structure resembles your website structure. Try toe up with a sensible URL strategy discuss it with your colleages and do all of this early in the development process. A few things to consdier Move from large to small from generic to specific. The user should be able to remove the last part of the URL and arrive at a parent resource. Let the hierarchy reflect the UX of navigating the website. Try to keep URLs as short as possible. Human readable URLs are easier to understand and share and they are great for SEO. Cool URIs don change s . Leave out anything that might change such as author file name extensions status or subject. Use query parameters correctly The URI spec s#section-3.4 tells us to use query parameters only for non-hierarchical data italic . Don use query parameters to identify a resource; use a path. Bad code Good code Use query parameters for optional italic things like limiting sorting filtering and other Good code Good code Use HTTP methods Instead of having a bunch of endpoints for various s of actions use a single URL for every single resource italic in your application. Distinguish between actions using HTTP methods s . Bad GET code Bad GET code Good GET code Good DELETE code There is a big difference between requests that aim to read content create content or edit content. Make sure to use the GET POST PUT and PATCH HTTP methods correctly. The GET and PUT operations are idempotent italic which means that a request can be repeated multiple times without side effects. This distinction is important because it tells the client whether it can try again if an error occurs. It also helps with caching since only GET request should be cacheable. If you want to offer a form to delete or edit a resource that form will be a different resource from the original item italic so it will need a seperate URL. A nice convention is to nest that form resource below the original item. This way the user just adds code to the a URL if he wants to edit that resource. Good GET code Good GET code Use HTTP status codes Pretty much all s of error messages can be categorized in the existing HTTP status codes s . These are not just useful to humans but especially to machines. Status codes can be parsed far more quickly than a body . Another advantage is that they are standardized so the client library is likely to know what the status code represents. You don have to support every single one but at the very least make sure that you use the five categories 1xx informational - just letting you know 2xx successful - everything OK 3xx redirection - your content is somewhere else 4xx client error - youre doing something wrong 5xx server error - were doing something wrong Add con to your JSON Assuming you use JSON as a serialization format you can use @con s#the-con . The @con object is a nifty little idea to make your API more self-descriptive. It describes what the various keys in your JSON actually represent. It provides s to where the definition can be found. Make sure all your IDs are actually s and your con is included. Now all your JSON has be JSON-LD which is ed data s . That means that your JSON data is now convertible to other RDF formats (Turtle N3 N-triples etc.) which means it bes far more reusable. Keep in mind that the s that you use should preferably resolve to some document that exs what your concept represents. A good starting point to find relevant concepts is s . Offer various serialization options Be as flexible as possible in your serialization options. For many MVC frameworks the amount of effort required to add new serializers is not that bad. For example we wrote a library for Ruby on Rails s to serialize to JSON-LD RDF N3 N-triples and Turtle. Use the aforementioned HTTP accept header to handle content negotiation. Standardize index pages and pagination Youre probably going to need index pages with pagination. How to deal with that? Pagination is not a trivial problem but luckily for you youre not the first to encounter it. Don try to reinvent the wheel; use something that already exists such as W3C activity stream collections s#collections or Hydra collections #collections . Don require an API key Your default API (the HTML one) doesn need one so your JSON API shouldn need one s#api-keys-are-a-lie as well. Use rate limiting to make sure your servers don fry. You can still use API keys or authentication to give access to special parts of your API of course. Use a doc. code subdomain for API docs Here a clever little idea s@fletcher91 make your API documentation available at code . If a user wants to know how your api works for a certain page he just adds doc. code in front of his current URL. Show the user a page that tells something useful about how to use the API at that route. Use your own API Finally and perhaps most importantly eat your own dog food. Make your API a first-class citizen by using it as the only way to access information from that system. API-driven development forces you to make your API actually work. It helps you document your API properly since your colleagues need to use it as well. Besides youll make your application more modular and gradually realize a microservice architecture which has its own set of benefits. Originally posted on oir italic Ontola blog. italic